The cycling champion will light up his home city during a night of celebrations on George Street on November 24 with a "12 Days of Christmas" theme.
Around 850 school and community performers will take part in the event, with an expected audience of 18,000.
The capital's festive celebrations will include a site at St Andrew Square for the first time.
A 635-seat Spiegeltent will be home to circus show LIMBO over the festive period, and Scottish and children's markets will also be set up in the square.
Other attractions in the city include a big wheel, ice skating, a European market and a Christmas tree maze.
The city's festive celebrations run from November 22 to January 5.
The programme of events was announced by Underbelly and Unique Events, on behalf of the city council.
In a statement, Charlie Wood and Ed Bartlam, of Underbelly, said: "Christmas in Edinburgh has been seriously re-imagined as an event for families, for children, for young people and for all of Edinburgh.
"Whilst retaining many of the traditionally popular attractions, we have relocated some, expanded others and introduced new attractions that will delight the residents and visitors of this historic city.
"Christmas in Edinburgh will be a metropolitan festival to rival the celebrations of other world cities and an event of which the capital city of Scotland will be proud."