A groundbreaking survey by the Public and Commercial Services Union (PCS) also found that nearly 75% of women believe the future of services will influence their vote at next year's historic poll.
Both Labour and the SNP last night welcomed the report.
Trades unions in Scotland have so far taken a very different stance on the independence referendum.
While Aslef and Community - the unions for train drivers and steelworkers respectively - have backed the pro-UK Better Together campaign, most unions have stayed neutral on the subject.
PCS, which represents thousands of government employees as well as staff in the private sector, commissioned a survey of its members on the issues that will influence their vote next year. Nearly 2000 individuals responded and the findings will be unveiled by PCS at an event on Tuesday but details have been obtained by the Sunday Herald.
In the introduction, PCS complained about the "low level of debate" so far, while also referring to the "lack of information provided by both the Yes and No campaigns".
On issues relating to pay and conditions, 60% of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that the future of pensions would be a factor in whether they support independence. The figure for pay was 56%, 55% for job security, 47% in relation to fairness at work, and 42% for career opportunities.
However, the numbers rose when public services were introduced to the survey. Asked whether "adequate funding for public services" would be a factor in their vote next year, 68% said they either agreed or strongly agreed.
Similarly, 64% said "accountability of public services" would be a factor, while 67% cited the "potential for high quality public services". On the latter, the figure was 72% for female respondents.
The fact that public services are deemed more important than pay and pensions may be surprising, given the wage freeze imposed by the UK and Scottish governments, as well as the chipping away of state-funded pensions.
The report noted: "In the light of these results, the union should ensure that the future of public services is central to the debate around proposed constitutional change."
The figures also suggest a new front has been opened up in the independence debate. The SNP will take comfort from the priority given to public services, as the First Minister has made universalism a key part of his term in office.
He has contrasted his support for free higher education, prescriptions and bus passes with what he regards as the privatisation agenda of successive governments south of the Border. At the SNP's conference this week, the party will debate the Common Weal, a set of proposals based on importing Nordic ideas of cradle-to-grave public services.
However, Labour can also take comfort from the findings.
Johann Lamont's party has criticised the SNP's council tax freeze, which disproportionately favours the wealthy in cash terms, for putting pressure on services.
She has also critiqued the SNP's focus on universalism, arguing that it can result in wealthy Scots receiving support the country cannot afford. The SNP and Labour also both favour the expansion of free childcare for parents - an increasingly important public service.
SNP MSP Linda Fabiani said: "The obsession of successive Westminster governments with privatising vital public services such as Royal Mail is out of step with the aspirations of people in Scotland, and this survey shows that is a key factor in how people will vote next year.
"With a Yes vote next year, we will be able to protect Scotland's public services from the deeply damaging agendas of Westminster governments."
Drew Smith, Scottish Labour's constitutional spokesman, said: "We welcome the importance placed on public services by PCS workers and many of them will be asking how spending will maintained in an independent Scotland when the SNP want to base our economy on volatile oil prices and hand big tax cuts to wealthy corporations.
"I remain confident that the vast majority of trade unionists will see the benefits of working in partnership with our neighbours and vote for a strong Scotland staying within the United Kingdom."
A spokesperson for PCS said: "The survey has been an important part of the work done by PCS in the run-up to the referendum." The findings will be made available soon.