From April 1 they will pay an average of 14.2% of their salary towards their pension each month.
The Scottish Police Federation says its officers are being "punished" as a consequence of falling police numbers in England and Wales. The Fire Brigades Union (FBU) said members already pay the highest contributions in the public sector.
Notification of the increases is contained within circulars from the Scottish Public Pensions Agency (SPPA), following changes to pension legislation from the UK Treasury.
FBU Scottish secretary John Duffy said: "We call on the Scottish Government to stand up for public sector workers."
The Scottish Police Federation said members on an annual salary of £27,001 to £60,000 will see their contributions increase from 13.5% to 14.25%.