The action follows an increase in the crime, which has seen train cables stolen from railways and lead stripped from roofs.
The damage and disruption caused by the thefts costs the Scottish economy an estimated £700 million each year, police said.
Officers from all 14 divisions of Police Scotland and the British Transport Police will target thieves and dealers who trade in stolen material. Police will visit metal dealers and carry out roadside checks to catch suspects transporting stolen metal in Operation Caraway, which runs until September 6.
Chief Superintendent Ellie Bird, chair of the Metal Theft (Scotland) Group, said: "Everyday life is still being disrupted by thieves who steal lead from roofs, cable which results in train delays and cancellations and utility companies are reporting damage which causes power and communication outages and even sub-station fires."
Businesses are being asked to lock away equipment not in use and be wary that workmen in yellow jackets are not always genuine.
Justice Secretary Kenny MacAskill said: "We launched a consultation in April looking at changes to the regulation of the scrap metal industry to further protect both the interests of the public and of industry."