There were 17,324 full-time equivalent officers on June 30, up 1,090 since the SNP began its first term in government in 2007.
Officer numbers have dropped by 172 (-1.0%) since March 30 and by 49 (-0.3%) since June 30 last year.
Justice Secretary Kenny MacAskill said: "These statistics show our target to ensure 1,000 extra police officers is continuing to be met, and exceeded, and that is welcome news for our communities. Our additional officers are keeping our streets safe and have helped reduce recorded crime to its lowest level for 39 years.
"We have always said that police numbers will fluctuate over time and the most recent figure shows an increase of almost 7% since March 2007 and is still well above our target.
"This Government has kept its promise to protect police posts in direct contrast to England and Wales where police numbers have fallen to their lowest level in 11 years.
"I welcome the continued hard work by Police Scotland and the Scottish Police Authority to keep our communities safe."
Labour MSP Graeme Pearson, a member of Holyrood's Justice Committee, said: "As a former senior police officer, I know that despite the rhetoric from Kenny MacAskill, many of Scotland's officers aren't patrolling the streets of our communities but are sitting behind desks, having become backroom bobbies.
"Chief Constable House has warned that there will be more job cuts to come. You don't need to be a cynic to know that the bulk of these cuts will happen after the referendum next year. The SNP's priority is to delay the consequences of their budget choices until that vote is out of the way.
"Scotland deserves better. With closure plans for police stations being drawn up, increasingly we see a police service which is facing some of the deepest cuts ever.
"It's time for an honest conversation about how Scotland can and should be policed in the future, where the police are integral to our local communities, accessible and responsive to local needs.
"The SNP's focus on a headline number fails to recognise the concerns that our police are becoming more remote and will be increasingly stretched with further cuts to their budget."
SNP MSP Kevin Stewart, who sits on Holyrood's justice sub-committee on policing, said: "These latest figures show that the SNP Government's target of recruiting 1,000 additional police officers has been exceeded again and show quite clearly why decisions are best taken in Scotland rather than left to Westminster.
"The additional police officers have helped drive crime in Scotland down to a 39-year low, underlining just how important their work has been.
"While short-term fluctuations are an inevitable part of these kinds of statistics, the long-term trends show quite clearly that Scotland is still well above its targeted police numbers.
"The situation in Scotland where we have continued to meet our target of delivering additional police officers stands in stark contrast to the situation south of the border where police numbers have been slashed by thousands to reach their lowest point for the last 11 years.
"It really is a tale of two governments and underlines once again why it is so important for the Scottish Parliament to be able to make decisions on the issues affecting Scotland."
Conservative chief whip John Lamont said: "Securing 1,000 extra police officers was a central Scottish Conservative policy, one we persuaded the Scottish Government to implement. However, it's disappointing the numbers have fallen since the creation of Police Scotland.
"This cannot be allowed to become a trend, but it's telling that we're now at the lowest level since mid-2011.
"In addition, we know many of these officers have backroom jobs, meaning they are not out and about on the frontline keeping our streets safe.
"The Scottish Government needs to explain why these figures have decreased and what it intends to do to make sure this doesn't have an impact on crime and public safety."
Liberal Democrat justice spokeswoman Alison McInnes said: "The Justice Secretary's mantra of a thousand extra police officers doesn't fool many of us. It is difficult to find cause for celebration in this claim when in reality hundreds of civilian staff have been made redundant and police officers are having to cover more backroom jobs.
"We have seen police officers pulled out of community projects, the award for special constables cut and communications problems across the new single force.
"Not only is it important that we have enough police officers to ensure the safety of our community but those police officers must also be able to serve our communities through prevention and education work."