Nyman, who is perhaps best known for writing the soundtrack to Jane Campion's film The Piano, will premiere the new composition at the Kelso Old Parish Church tomorrow.
The performance is part of the Fragments project, an arts and music project inspired by the discovery of the fragment of the musical medieval manuscript in Hawick in 2009, known as the Hawick Missal.
It would have been part of a missal - a book which contained the texts and chants for a medieval Mass.
Mr Nyman said that despite it being around 800 years old, he could read the music and has composed the new work based on its clusters of notes.
He has composed the new work, for choir and four fiddles, so that the players have some freedom over what they play, and when.
"The history of it is fascinating to me, and I will be fascinated to hear how the performance goes: I hope they can find a way to record it, as I will be unable to attend," he said.
"I hope it will be exciting and unpredictable."
Culture Secretary Fiona Hyslop said: "I am delighted that Michael, who has won a Golden Globe, a British Academy Award, and an Ivor Novello award is taking part in the Fragments Project.
"To hear exciting new music composed by an internationally renowned composer in the historic and spiritual setting around Kelso Abbey will be a once in a lifetime opportunity."