The service wants access to best-selling titles in electronic format to continue attracting book worms as technology forces the move away from printed material.
But publishers say they risk losing profits if potential customers use their library cards to download titles for free or at minimal cost.
The Publishers Association said its members believe "current unlimited access to free ebook downloads could seriously damage commercial interests of publishers, booksellers, and most importantly, those of our authors".
But Elaine Fulton, director of the Scottish Library and Information Council (SLIC), which advises the Scottish Government, told The Herald: "There is a resistance amongst publishers to allow their ebooks to go into libraries and an informed discussion is required about the issues. That informed discussion has yet to take place.
"There is a lack of understanding on both sides. The major issues are about the costs for the public library, and these relate to set-up, infrastructure and formatting. Another major issue is choice."
Many local authorities are already offering a limited selection of more obscure titles that can either be downloaded at home on a computer or mobile device, such as a Kindle, or on library premises.
Publishers are against furnishing libraries with their best-selling ebooks until stronger controls on free lending are in place.
It follows claims some local authorities, although not specifically those in Scotland, have embarked on potentially damaging ebook lending that undermines the commercial interests of the publishing industry.
The Publishers Association claimed that a local authority was offering "free ebooks, wherever you are, whenever you want" by allowing home downloading regardless of geographical location. A spokesman said: "Under this model, who would ever buy an e-book again? Or any book for that matter?"
Library chiefs in Scotland said the stance of the majority of publishers was socially divisive, given that the bulk of e-material is only currently available to those who can afford Kindles or have access to the internet.
The SLIC is hoping to lobby the European Parliament and MPs will also examine the issue. It is also working with Scotland's publishers to conclude a deal that would allow library members to read digital versions of the best books produced in Scotland.
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