Scotland's 53 medals, including 19 golds, was "an excellent return" on the Scottish Government's £50 million investment in the Games, she said.
She hailed highlights such as the success of Shetland swimmer Erraid Davies, 13, the Commonwealth's youngest ever medallist, and Ross Murdoch's tears of joy at winning gold in the pool.
Scottish Labour sport spokeswoman Patricia Ferguson said the Games can be "an impetus for change", encouraging people to be more active.
Scottish Conservative sport spokeswoman Liz Smith said the Games demonstrated "just how successful it can be" when the Scottish and UK governments come together.
Ms Robison said: "The final tally of 53 medals, 19 of those gold, is a fantastic reflection of the commitment and dedication of every single member of the team and is an excellent return on the £50 million investment we have made in Commonwealth Games sports and performance programmes, through sportscotland.
"Who could forget the beaming smile of Erraid Davies as she received her medal, or Ross Murdoch's joy when he realised he had won gold?"
She added: "When the eyes of the world turned to Glasgow two weeks ago, we were ready.
"We showed the world that Scotland provides the perfect stage to host major events. We showed that our people are amongst the world's friendliest, and that even the Scottish weather can rise to the occasion.
"Through hard work, grit and good humour, we have proven that when we are handed such a great responsibility, Scotland delivers."
Ms Ferguson said: "The enthusiasm Glasgow and Scotland showed for those Games also showed us that a multi-games, multi-sport event like the Commonwealth Games can be a real impetus for change in our country.
"It can inspire people to be more active more often, as we all want them to be."
Ms Smith said: "The Scottish Government and the UK Government worked extraordinarily hard, and proved just how successful it can be when these two governments come together."