The engineering giant is to shed around a fifth of staff employed at a manufacturing plant in Inchinnan in Renfrewshire.
It said challenging market conditions had resulted in "limited opportunities" to bring in new work.
The announcement follows a decision to close Rolls-Royce's East Kilbride plant next year and transfer production to Inchinnan.
The company said it would seek to avoid compulsory redundancies where possible.
Chris Cholerton, executive vice president of the company's compressor components arm, said: "We need to ensure our business remains competitive and has the right scale for today's market and workload.
"It is never an easy decision to propose reductions in our workforce, but it is a sign of the increasingly competitive market in which we operate that such actions are necessary.
"We have invested over £85 million at Inchinnan to make it a state of the art facility and are continuing to transfer our operations from East Kilbride to maximise efficiency.
"This will ensure we remain competitive and are best placed for any opportunities that may appear in the future."