The aerospace giant yesterday announced plans to transfer 600 staff from its East Kilbride plant to an £85 million facility near Glasgow Airport.
But South Lanarkshire politicians warned the decision would damage the town's economy, and said some workers would be unable to take up a new position at the new site in Inchinnan, Renfrewshire.
The South Lanarkshire site was built to service fighter jet engines used on British planes in the Korean war, and has been a major employer in the area since then.
Alex McMillan, managing director of Rolls-Royce East Kilbride, said the decision would safeguard jobs for the future.
But Michael McCann, Labour MP for East Kilbride, Strathaven and Lesmahagow, said he was extremely angry.
He said: "Rolls-Royce is part of the fabric of our town and, most importantly, generations of families from East Kilbride have provided the workforce that has made a such huge contribution to the company's success.
"Speculation on the company's future has been rife following its decision not to move to a new site at Langlands in the town and more recently its decision to close down and mothball parts of the East Kilbride plant.
"I am extremely angry at this proposed move and I know that every member of the workforce will be as furious as I am.
"East Kilbride has backed Rolls-Royce but it appears that Rolls-Royce doesn't want to back East Kilbride."
East Kilbride MSP Linda Fabiani said: "I spoke with the management earlier today, and while I welcome their commitment to maintain all of the workforce by moving to the Inchinnan site, we have to recognise that for some people commuting will be difficult. Given the time needed for travelling, Rolls-Royce has to ensure this move is logistically possible for its workers."
Staff will move to the new plant in Inchinnan in the next three years, and the East Kilbride plant will close by 2015. Around 1000 people already work at Inchinnan.
One insider said: "We're basically moving from a 1950s set-up to the modern age."
The firm insisted there would be no job losses as a result.
Mr McMillan, said: "This is a positive development for our employees and helps to safeguard jobs.
"Transferring our operations from East Kilbride will enable us to maximise efficiency at the nearby Inchinnan facility, helping us to become even more competitive.
"We will work closely with our employees to ensure that the proposed transition process is managed considerately."
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