Steven Thomson made no plea or declaration during the hearing at Haddington Sheriff Court in East Lothian to the charges of threatening and abusive behaviour.
Mr Thomson, from Renfrew, has been charged under the Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010.
The 43-year-old had been arrested on Thursday and detained in police custody.
He was released on bail and is expected to appear again in court, with no date set for a further appearance.
Both sides in the referendum battle have warned supporters against abuse on social media sites, with the issue dominating headlines in recent weeks.