First Minister Alex Salmond will be in conversation with author and historian Sir Tom Devine at the festival on Monday, August 11, while former Prime Minister Gordon Brown will talk to writer Alistair Moffat on Friday, August 15.
This year's festival programme is designed to place the independence debate in a broader context.
Nick Barley, director of the festival, said: "The two events announced today offer our audience an exciting opportunity to get to the very heart of the independence debate.
"Two of Scotland's leading historians and writers are joined by politicians who are deeply committed to contrasting visions of Scotland's future. Their dialogues will examine Scotland's constitutional question, and the nation's future relationship with the rest of the United Kingdom, from an informed, historical perspective."
Tickets for both events can be purchased from the Edinburgh International Book Festival website.
The festival runs from Saturday, August 9 to Monday, August 25 in Charlotte Square Gardens.
Other writers and thinkers appearing at this year's festival including Martin Amis, Will Self, Julia Donaldson and Richard Dawkins.