The First Minister will challenge his political rival on the controversial policy which is resulting in tenants losing a significant proportion of their housing benefit.
Under the Coalition's clampdown on welfare, tenants in social housing are being docked part of their benefit if they have a spare bedroom.
However, the policy has sparked protests across the UK as it takes money away from many of the most vulnerable members of society.
The SNP Government has promised to scrap the tax in an independent Scotland, although Labour believes the Nationalists could use Holyrood's devolved powers to greater effect.
Salmond will use Wednesday's meeting of the Joint Ministerial Committee, set up to discuss areas of mutual interest between the administrations across the UK, to complain about the policy and to call for it to be scrapped.
A source close to the First Minister said: "The bedroom tax is a deeply unfair, deeply unpopular policy, and its full effects are now becoming clear in communities right across Scotland.
"It affects around 82,000 social rented sector tenants in Scotland, who are losing around £50 per month or £600 a year. Around 80% of those households include a disabled adult - and around 15,500 families with children in Scotland are being penalised by the bedroom tax.
The source added: "It is a punitive measure, affecting some of the most vulnerable in our society, and it must be scrapped - something the First Minister will make clear to the Prime Minister when they meet this week."