Mr Salmond addressed a gathering in Portlethen, Aberdeenshire, with Prime Minister David Cameron and his Cabinet just a few miles away on their own visit to the north east.
The two Cabinets' close proximity was a "wasted opportunity" to stage a public debate between the First Minister and Prime Minister, he said.
He described the Westminster Government's visit, the first time a UK Cabinet has visited north east Scotland since David Lloyd George's team met in 1921 to sign the treaty of Irish independence, as a potential "portent" of his hopes for an independent Scotland.
"If at any point David Cameron walks in, I am available for this debate," he said.
"I'm here, I'm ready, I'm willing. Let's take the opportunity to exploit this geographical coincidence in order to pursue the debate that so many people in Scotland want to see.
"This is the 12th Scottish Cabinet meeting in the North of Scotland, but this is only the second time in history that the UK Cabinet has met in the north of Scotland.
"It met in Inverness in 1921 when Lloyd George summoned them to Inverness during his summer holidays to sign the treaty for Irish independence.
"So, it's a portent for things to come perhaps.
"The UK Cabinet has come to Aberdeen but they're not going to have any public discussion or access.
"It does seem a wasted opportunity, not just for the First Minister and the Prime Minister to debate, but to have people from this area question the UK Cabinet over its range of responsibilities."
Mr Salmond welcomed the report by Sir Ian Wood which recommended a new energy regulator to be based in the north east.
"I've got some form in oil and gas as I was an energy economist before I fell among thieves, by which I mean the House of Commons and not the Scottish Parliament or the Scottish Government," Mr Salmond, a former Westminster MP, said.
"I've been involved in this debate for a long time and it's interesting how much of the debate repeats itself.
"We are told today that North Sea oil and gas is better handled by a big country like Britain as opposed to a small country like Scotland.
"That's a very interesting concept for people in this part of the country, who can glance across the North Sea to Norway, a country smaller than Scotland but a country which by every observation has handled its oil and gas resources better than the stewardship of Westminster.
"I don't mean better just for the companies earning profits and investment, that's important, and not even just for the workforce terms, conditions and safety, which is hugely important.
"I mean handling the oil and gas resource for the community as a whole as Norway has accumulated much of its revenues for a futures fund for future generations."
Baroness Goldie, former Leader of the Scottish Conservatives, later hit out at Mr Salmond's description of Westminster MPs as "thieves".
She said: "Language like this ill becomes a First Minister. It adds nothing helpful to the debate so vital for Scotland's future as this one. Playground yahboo politics have no role to play."