Double Bafta winner Colman is nominated for her roles in hit ITV crime series Broadchurch - which is also up for best drama serial - and Channel 4 drama Run.
Glaswegian actress Rooney is in the running at the Royal Television Society (RTS) awards for her first major TV role on E4 show My Mad Fat Diary.
The show, based on a teenager's diary, is also up for best drama series, up against Peaky Blinders (BBC2) and Utopia (Channel 4).
Rooney, who was touring with a theatre education group when she received an email about trying out for the drama, almost turned down the audition, thinking it would be to play another "big girl" who is a bully or a victim.
Jodie Whittaker is also nominated for best actress, for her role alongside Colman in Broadchurch.
The best male actor award sees Idris Elba nominated for Luther, alongside Stephen Dillane for The Tunnel and Lennie James for Run.
EastEnders has been snubbed in the soap and continuing drama category, where Casualty, Coronation Street and Emmerdale are up for the award.
Sir David Attenborough is up for best presenter for Sky show Galapagos 3D, alongside Stephen Fry for Stephen Fry - Out There.