The gift was made in recognition of what Bellany called one of the "truly great moments" of his career, the exhibition John Bellany: A Passion for Life which opened at the Scottish National Gallery last year.
The artist wrote to the director and curators at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art in the spring of this year, expressing a wish to give his 1992 painting Prague Easter to the collection. The painting will be on show as part of a new exhibition of works acquired over the past three years, which opens this month.
Keith Hartley, chief curator at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, said: "This is a major work from a time when Bellany had recovered from his liver transplant operation and had been given a new lease of life. He was sponsored by the British Council to travel and paint in the newly democratised countries of central Europe."
"This painting shows the famous Charles Bridge that spans the River Vltava in Prague. One of the bridge's Baroque sculptures depicts the Crucifixion: the crowds thronging the bridge look as if they were actual eye-witnesses."
John Leighton, director general of the National Galleries of Scotland, said: "It would be hard to imagine a more appropriate image to commemorate one of Scotland's most important and best-loved artists."