The Bank of Scotland's labour market barometer for June registered the steepest drop in people searching for permanent employment since the survey began in 2003.
Salary inflation also reached a record high, driven by a surge in demand for staff coupled with the fall in candidate numbers.
Permanent and temporary job appointments increased at a faster rate in line with an upturn in the number of vacancies, the report found.
The findings highlight the "growing pressure" in Scotland's labour market, the bank said.
Its labour market barometer reached a survey-record high of 65.1 in June, up from 61.8 in May and marking the first increase since February.
The barometer measures areas such as levels of staff demand, employment and wages to create a single figure snapshot of labour market conditions.
The figure is measured against a baseline of 50, with anything above 50 representing an improvement and anything below a deterioration.
Donald MacRae, chief economist at Bank of Scotland, said: "June's barometer reached a record high in the eleven and a half years of the survey.
"The recovery in the Scottish economy looks set to continue."