During the first five months of the new single force there was a 49% increase in officers leaving the service - excluding those who left due to retirement, ill health or end of service - when compared with the same time period last year.
The sharp increase has been attributed to a variety of factors, including dissatisfaction from some officers in the east and north-east of the country about changes to policing under the new Chief Constable Sir Stephen House.
This year, 22 officers left the former Lothian and Borders force area, compared to 14 last year.
Last year, 14 officers left the Grampian force area. This year the number was 39.
However, officers have also highlighted that a number of officers in the Aberdeen area have been lured into the lucrative oil industry by better pay and conditions. Other officers are considering leaving because of impending changes to police pensions in 2015.
David O'Connor, president of the Association of Scottish Police Superintendents (Asps), said: "For me it is always disappointing when someone takes the decision to leave the police earlier than retirement age. There will be a whole variety of factors involved.
"When I joined it was very much a job for life but young people hold different views. The financial climate in Scotland and the new pension changes mean some people may look at other avenues.
"Clearly Police Scotland needs to look at both recruitment and retention as it goes forward. If this is becoming an issue we need to look at the trends and issues involved."
Graeme Pearson MSP, Scottish Labour's justice spokesman, said: "The significant number of police officers leaving the force at this time is concerning because a great deal of experience is being lost. It comes at a time when the Chief Constable has suggested he can no longer support 1000 extra officers in addition to current numbers. There needs to be an explanation as to what is going on in personnel."
Between April 1 and September 1, 2012, some 107 officers left, including 87 constables and six sergeants.
In the same period this year, 155 officers left, including 138 constables, two chief constables, one assistant chief constable and two chief inspectors.
The creation of Police Scotland saw the amalgamation of eight forces across Scotland, with Sir Stephen, the new Chief Constable, driving changes of approach and focus.
New national priorities include stop-searches and targeting dangerous driving.
Under the pension changes to be introduced in 2015, there will be an increase in contributions made by police officers and the normal pension age will be 60, with flexible retirement allowed from the age of 55.
A police source said: "With any organisational change people will decide to leave. Many of those who have left were constables who may have decided this is not the job for them. Others will be concerned about the pension changes.
"There is no doubt that officers are being poached by the oil industry. And some - particularly in the east and north-east - are upset about the new Glasgow-centric, performance-dominated approach of the single service."
A Police Scotland spokesman said: "Police officers will leave the service for a number of reasons including retirement, seeking employment elsewhere and for reasons related to professional standards.
"Police Scotland is committed to ensuring that the number of police officers is maintained above 17,234.
"We are recruiting officers and will always closely manage and monitor both our intake of new recruits and the level of people leaving the service."