Spanish teacher Ann Maguire, 61, was months away from retiring, after working at Corpus Christi Catholic College in Leeds for more than 40 years, when she was attacked in a classroom on Monday morning in front of around 30 pupils.
The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) has concluded that there is sufficient evidence to charge the 15-year-old with the murder after he was arrested and interviewed under caution by police.
The boy, who cannot be named for legal reasons, will first appear at Leeds Youth Court today and at Leeds Crown Court for a bail hearing tomorrow, the CPS said.
In a statement, Peter Mann, head of the CPS Yorkshire and Humberside Complex Casework Unit, said: "The family of Mrs Maguire have been informed of this decision and they will be offered a meeting to explain the trial process and answer any questions they may have.
"The death of Mrs Maguire has attracted a very considerable amount of public interest and media activity. This defendant now stands charged with an extremely serious criminal offence and has the right to a fair trial.
"It is extremely important that there should be no reporting, commentary or sharing of information online which could in any way prejudice these proceedings."
Pope Francis yesterday expressed sympathy to the family of Mrs Maguire.