Shows will also include an exhibition of watercolours and drawings by the influential 19th century critic John Ruskin, as well as a show linked to the commemorations of the beginning of the First World War.
The year will see the hanging of Titian's Diana and Actaeon and Diana and Callisto, both saved for the nation in multi-million pound deals, in a display which unites them with a third masterpiece from the same series, The Death of Actaeon, which will be on loan from the National Gallery in London.
Titian and the Golden Age of Venetian Painting, which opens at the Scottish National Gallery in March, will draw on the gallery's collection of sixteenth-century Venetian paintings, drawings and prints.
The Art of Golf, an exploration of the depiction of golf in art from the seventeenth century, will be on show at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in the summer of 2014.
It will feature Charles Lees's nineteenth-century masterpiece The Golfers, but it will also feature around 60 other works.
American Impressionism, which opens at the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art on 19 July, will explore the impact of French Impressionism on American artists working in France and in the US in the period between 1880 and 1900.
It will bring together some 80 paintings by major international artists such as James McNeill Whistler, John Singer Sargent and Mary Cassatt.
John Ruskin, the seminal aesthete, art critic and champion of JMW Turner will also be on show at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery next summer.
A collaboration with the National Gallery in Ottowa, it will be the exhibition's only showing outside Canada.
In March, the Taylor Wessing Photographic Portrait Prize 2013 will be shown at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery for the first time.
The exhibition brings together the best of recent portrait photography from around the world, highlighting 60 entries selected from the 5,000 images submitted to the judges of the prestigious £12,000 prize last year.
The portrait gallery will also be showing Remembering the Great War, from August 2014 to July 2015.
The show will focus on individuals ncluding Dr Elsie Inglis, who took a team of Scottish nurses to Serbia and Harry Lauder, who entertained troops at the Front.
At the end of the year the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art will highlight th careers of Robert MacBryde and Robert Colquhoun, known as the The Two Roberts.
They were well known in post-war London art-world, enjoyed a string of successful exhibitions.
The galleries said: "Following their subsequent lapse into obscurity and early deaths in the 1960s, this exhibition will be a long-overdue re-examination of their work."