Goods worth up to £1 million were allegedly taken from the ROX jewellery store in George Street, Edinburgh, on January 15.
Police revisited the scene earlier this week to speak to potential witnesses.
Two men, aged 25 and 26, were arrested and charged today, Lothian and Borders Police said.
They are due to appear at Edinburgh Sheriff Court tomorrow.
Officers said anyone with information on the incident can still contact them.