The track, which famously failed to make it to number one after being held off the top slot by novelty hit Shaddap You Face by Joe Dolce, headed a listener poll for radio station Absolute 80s.
Ultravox's 1981 hit beat runner-up Livin' On A Prayer by Bon Jovi and third-placed Relax by Frankie Goes To Hollywood.
Vienna was accompanied by an atmospheric video which was filmed in various London locations, including Covent Garden, rather than the Austrian capital.
Band frontman Midge Ure said: "Of all the records, all the great records that were out during the Eighties, for that to come top of the heap is just wonderful news.
"In hindsight, to have something that has lasted that amount of time in people's minds and hearts, it's just great. There is a bonus about being at the number two spot for five or six weeks, the record keeps selling. So, we're not going to cry on the way to the bank. It was absolutely fine."
Presenters Leona Graham and Martyn Lee will be counting down listeners' favourite 100 songs from the decade from 10am today on the digital station together with Absolute Radio.
Top 10 hits of the 1980s:
1. Ultravox - Vienna
2. Bon Jovi - Livin' On A Prayer
3. Frankie Goes To Hollywood - Relax
4. A-Ha - Take On Me
5. Guns N Roses - Sweet Child O' Mine
6. New Order - Blue Monday
7. Dexy's Midnight Runners - Come On Eileen
8. Bryan Adams - Summer Of '69
9. Joy Division - Love Will Tear Us Apart
10. Human League - Don't You Want Me