Weather emergencies topped a list, with about half of those questioned saying they are very or quite concerned (49%).
The proportion is up from the 38% recorded last year and is higher than power cuts (46%), health emergencies (37%) and terrorism (31%).
The research was published as the Scottish Government unveiled its "ready for winter" campaign.
Transport Minister Keith Brown said: "As we have seen in Scotland, severe weather can strike quickly and at any time of year. In March we saw the impact of severe snowstorms on communities in Arran, Kintyre and Dumfries and Galloway.
"The weather can cause a range of problems but we can be ready for them. So, whether it is making your home energy efficient, protecting your pipes, packing an emergency kit for the car or looking out for vulnerable neighbours, we can all play our part in helping Scotland get ready for winter."
The survey, by TNS BMRB, was commissioned by the Government and the British Red Cross and was based on responses from just over 1000 people.
The proportion of people saying they are prepared for extreme weather increased from 39% last year to 44%.
One in 10 feel they are very or quite prepared for terrorism (11%), just under the 13% score for major transport incidents.
It also shows around three in 10 people experienced disruption to their water, gas or electricity supplies in the last 12 months (28%).
The proportion reached two in five in rural areas (41%).