The former White Stripes guitarist said he wants to make the rare recordings – a vast catalogue of more than 25,000 pre-war and country blues tracks owned by Document Records of Newton Stewart, Dumfries and Galloway – more available.
"It's very important to American history and also to the history of the world," he said.
White intends to re-issue all of the tracks on vinyl, through his company Third Man Records.
He said: "I think it's the most reverential format because you're very involved, you're part of the mechanics of the music."
The Document label was set up in Austria in 1986, but is now owned by Gary and Gillian Atkinson, who run it from their house in Scotland.
Mr Atkinson said White wanted to release the full recorded works in chronological order, adding, "it's not a project for the faint-hearted".
White added: "We just want to create things that we want to see exist and if it breaks even, we're lucky – if not, it doesn't really matter."