Firefighters were called to the blaze in Corbett Place in the Tollcross area of Glasgow at around 7.15am.
The woman was found suffering from severe smoke inhalation, a spokesman for Strathclyde Fire and Rescue Service said.
The 53-year-old was given first aid by firefighters before paramedics arrived but she died at the scene.
Police and fire crews remain at the property and are investigating the cause of the fire.
The death follows two recent house fires where people were injured.
An elderly man was treated for burns and smoke inhalation after he was rescued from a blaze in Larkhall, while a woman was treated for smoke inhalation after a tenement fire in High Street, Johnstone at around the same time.
Deputy assistant chief officer Ally Boyle said: "Our thoughts are of course with the family and friends of the deceased particularly at this time of year. This incident and the two other serious fires we have had this weekend serve as a stark reminder of the devastating consequences fire can have.
"Although the cause of this fire is as yet undetermined, I would urge the public to ensure that they keep themselves and their families and neighbours safe by joining the fight against fire.
"The advice is simple: get a smoke alarm fitted and test it weekly; don't cook under the influence of alcohol; take extra care with cigarettes, open and electrical fires, and Christmas lights; and finally ensure you and your family have an escape plan and know what to do in the event of a fire."
Chief officer Brian Sweeney said: "The festive season always sees a marked rise in incident numbers, with increased risks from the lethal combination of alcohol, cooking and cigarettes.
"We need to accept fire can strike anywhere. It can happen to us and we need to take action to prevent it. It is vital that every home have at least one working smoke alarm."