The diver, a 42-year-old man, failed to resurface after a dive in Largo Bay on Wednesday.
The coastguard searched through the day before handing over to a police underwater team towards the evening.
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Fife Police did not name the diver but revealed he had disappeared in water six yards deep. It is thought he had been diving for shellfish, and was an experienced diver.
Forth Coastguard said last night: “The missing diver is reported to be a local man who chartered the boat locally.
“The two men who remained on the boat reported that the man had surfaced during the dive in approximately six yards of water and had requested more weights, but did not resurface after this.”
The lost man was from the Glenrothes area.
One report suggested the boat from which the diver had been based had no working radio.