Motorists using the Whitecart Viaduct have reported small potholes and cracks appearing in the surface along the westbound carriageway.
Engineers are due to inspect the damage over the coming days to assess whether or not repairs are required.
The bridge was resurfaced by a giant vehicle nicknamed the "Flaming Dragon" in the run-up to the Commonwealth Games. The upgrade was carried out by Scotland TranServ, for Transport Scotland.
A Scotland TranServ spokeswoman said the company was monitoring and investigating a "few minor localised surfacing irregularities".
She denied the surface was breaking up, and said road safety was not affected. Further investigations are planned in the coming days, she added.
The Institute of Advanced Motorists welcomed the move.