The new rules would apply throughout the UK, including Scotland. The recommendations were outlined in a report commissioned by the Department for Transport ahead of a Green Paper due to be published before the end of the year.
It recommends that teenagers should not be allowed to take their driving test until they are at least 18, and that all learner drivers would have to complete 100 hours of lessons in daylight and 20 hours of practice in the dark before they would be allowed to sit a test. The hours could include a mixture of paid lessons with a professional instructor, and supervised driving with a parent or qualified adult.
At present young learners take around 25-30 hours of lessons to pass their driving test, with the average cost of learning to drive £1500.
Newly-qualified drivers would also hold a probationary licence for the first 12 months after passing and be forced to carry 'P' plates.
New drivers aged under 30 would also face a night-time curfew. The report also recommends cutting the drink-drive limit on younger drivers and banning even hands-free mobile phone use.
Once the probationary period expired, drivers would graduate to a full-licence and unrestricted driving - but this would mean no-one under 19 being able to hold a full licence.
More than one fifth of deaths on Britain's roads in 2011 involved drivers aged 17 to 24, and around 10% of novice drivers are caught committing an offence within the first year of holding a driver's licence.
Neil Greg, director of policy at the Institute of Advanced Motoring, said: "If this went ahead, it would give the UK the ultimate graduated licence - the longest curfew and highest age limit in Europe, and I don't think we're going to see a system like that."
A spokesman for the DfT said: "We are committed to improving safety for young drivers and reducing their insurance costs. That is why we are publishing a Green Paper later in the year setting out our proposals. This will include a discussion about how people learn to drive."