Officers will wait at accident blackspots in a bid to catch motorists speeding through residential areas.
About 2000 Edinburgh streets currently operate lower speed limits, which are controlled by speed bumps and traffic calming measures.
Police chiefs have been hesitant to put resources into speed traps, but they will now actively enforce rules following a deal with city leaders.
Lesley Hinds, Edinburgh City Council's transport convenor, said the plans would "send a clear message" to motorists.
She said that in addition to being safer and better for the environment,"slower traffic makes streets more attractive to residents, pedestrians, cyclists and children, improves the environment for business and enhances quality of life."
The council made monitoring 20mph areas part of its "service level agreement" with Police Scotland, which gives a £2.6 million boost to community policing. The agreement is the first of its kind, and gives city leaders a refund option if officers are switched from their community role without approval.