The recall affects the hybrid Prius model and involves 30,970 of the UK-registered ones manufactured between March 2009 and February 2014.
The company, which has had a number of recalls in recent years, some involving the Prius, said there had been 11 incidents in Europe of the computer problem but there had been no accidents or injuries.
It said the latest incident involved a possible issue with the software.
The firm said: "Toyota has identified that the software setting could lead to higher thermal stress occurring in certain insulated-gate bipolar transistors in the boost converter which may lead to them deforming or being damaged. Should this happen, warning lights may be illuminated and the car is likely to switch to 'failsafe' operation.
"It can still be driven, but with reduced power. In limited cases, the hybrid system may shut down, causing the vehicle to stop."