The information released under Freedom of Information also shows revenues collected by fixed cameras has dropped.
Police collected just in excess of £3.1 million in Scotland in fixed penalty fines, compared with £2.2m in the whole of 2011-12, representing a 42% rise. The total for 2013-14 is likely to be considerably higher when revenues from January 1 to March 31 are added.
Over the same period, revenues collected by speed cameras fell by 24%, from £3.2m to £2.4m. The figures appear to support the belief that, as drivers become familiar with locations of fixed cameras, their detection rate is reduced.
The former Lothian and Borders force recorded the highest rise of roadside speeding fines, 95%, compared with 77% in Tayside Central and Fife and 58% in North Strathclyde.
The research, conducted by Thinktastic, comes after the Association of Scottish Police Superintendents recently called for a review of the way mobile speed cameras are deployed.
The research shows that police collected more than £5m a year in fines last year while local authorities collected more than £12m in parking fines.
In the past three years Edinburgh Council has collected £15,089,364 in parking fines, compared with £13,746,448 in Glasgow and £4,448,000 in Aberdeen.
A spokesman for Police Scotland said it was only one aspect in a multi-agency road safety camera partnerships and do not receive the revenue from fines.
He added: "Excessive speed is a killer. We are absolutely committed to reducing the number of people killed and seriously injured on our roads."