In a posting on his Twitter page, Mr Cameron said the President spoke of the "outstanding partnership" between the US and Britain.
Mr Cameron's official spokesman said the call lasted five minutes.
"The Prime Minister congratulated President Obama on his election victory after a long and hard-fought campaign," said the spokesman.
"The President spoke of the outstanding partnership between the UK and the US.
"They agreed they would have a longer conversation soon on a number of strategic issues, including what more the international community can do to end the conflict in Syria and to support the development of peaceful democracy in Libya."