Flanked by hooded anti-terrorism police, Ilias Panagiotaros raised his handcuffed fists in the air and proclaimed his innocence, shouting: "This fairy tale has no end!".
Mr Panagiotaros, Ilias Kasidiaris, Nikos Michos and Yannis Lagos were arrested on Saturday with their leader Nikolaos Mihaloliakos and dozens more Golden Dawn members.
The crackdown on Greece's third most popular party, whose appeal has so far appeared immune to accusations of brutality, is the biggest threat to Golden Dawn since it entered parliament last year.
The party has drawn on anger over the country's debt crisis, financial cutbacks, high unemployment and corruption.
The party members have been charged officially on evidence linking the party with a string of attacks, including the stabbing of rapper Pavlos Fissas last month and the killing of an immigrant this year.
The court magistrate will decide if the suspects will be kept in detention pending trial. Mr Mihaloliakos and his deputy leader Christos Pappas are expected to appear before the magistrate this week.
The killing of Mr Fissas - who bled to death after being stabbed twice in the heart and chest in what prosecutors said was a premeditated attack - has prompted protests across Greece, a shake-up of the police and a broad investigation of the party.