But other women who might have joined them chose to stay at home, according to organisers of the protest. They had been put off by phone calls from men who said they were from the Interior Ministry.
Mosques across Saudi Arabia broadcast sermons on Friday telling women to stay at home.
Police put up checkpoints in some parts of Riyadh, witnesses said, and there appeared to be more traffic patrols than usual on the streets of the capital - the latest sign of the sensitivity of the issue in the ultra-conservative Islamic kingdom.
"I know of several women who drove earlier today. We will post videos online later," one of the campaign organisers told reporters by phone.
Five videos were published on the campaign's YouTube feed and Twitter yesterday morning, dated October 26 and purporting to show women driving in Riyadh, the oasis region of al-Ahsa, and the city of Jeddah.
It was not possible to verify when they were filmed. One woman who took part said she had faced no reprisals: "I went to the grocery shop near the house … there was a reporter with me," Mai al-Sawyan told the BBC from Riyadh.
"Personally I know three other women who also drove."
Protests are illegal in Saudi Arabia, and public demands for political or social change have traditionally been interpreted by the authorities as an unacceptable challenge to the ruling al-Saud family's authority.
However, organisers said their call for women to drive yesterday was not a political protest as they had not called for gatherings, rallies or processions of cars.
Instead they asked women with foreign driving licences to get behind the wheel, accompanied by a male relative, and drive themselves when performing everyday tasks.
A website set up by the campaigners to petition the government appeared to have been hacked yesterday morning.
It was displaying a black background illuminated by glowing red lightning bolts and bore the message "Reason for the hacking: I am against women driving in the land of the two holy shrines."
King Abdullah has pushed some cautious reforms in the country, expanding female education and employment. He has also taken care not to open big rifts with conservative Islamic clerics.
But on Tuesday, around 150 conservative clerics gathered outside the royal court in a rare protest against the pace of social reforms in Saudi Arabia, including women's rights.
One prominent cleric, Sheikh Nasser al-Omar, was filmed describing the campaign for women to drive as "a conspiracy".
However, supporters of the campaign can point to increasingly public support for the idea of women driving in the media and among prominent Saudi figures.
This month three women in the Shoura Council, an appointed quasi-parliament set up by King Abdullah to advise the government on policy, said the Transport Ministry should look into allowing women to drive.
They argued that the ban made it hard for women to go to work or look after their families, and that it caused financial hardship for families that had to employ a full- time driver.
Some Saudi newspapers have also published editorials arguing women should be allowed to drive.