At least one police vehicle was attacked by the mob on the Jalalabad road, a main thoroughfare into the city, as shipping containers and tyres were also set alight, police chief Daoud Amin said.
Men grabbed rocks from the roadside and threw them at Camp Phoenix, a US military base that lies along the road. More than 20 police officers were injured by flying rocks, said general Fahim Qaim, the commander of a city quick-reaction police force.
It was the fourth day of Afghan protests against the film produced in the United States. In Kabul, police officers fired shots into the air to hold back about 800 people and prevent them from pushing towards government buildings.
In Pakistan, hundreds of people set fire to a press club and a government office, sparking clashes with police which led to the death of one demonstrator.
In Indonesia, a crowd hurled stones and petrol bombs at the US embassy in Jakarta, marking the first violence in the world's most populous Muslim country over the film. Eleven police officers were taken to hospital after being pelted with rocks and attacked with bamboo sticks.