Police said 69 of the deaths were in Bohol province, where the quake hit near the town of Carmen. At least 16 others died in nearby Cebu and another on Siquijor Island.
The 7.2 magnitude quake was centred about 20 miles below Carmen on Bohol Island, where many buildings collapsed, roads cracked and bridges fell.
Extensive damage also hit densely populated Cebu city, across a narrow strait from Bohol, causing deaths when a building in the port and the roof of a market area collapsed.
The quake set off two stampedes in nearby cities. When it struck, people in a gym in Cebu rushed outside in a panic, crushing five people to death and injuring eight others.
Vilma Yorong, a provincial government employee in Bohol, said: "We ran out of the building, and outside, we hugged trees because the tremors were so strong."
"When the shaking stopped, I ran to the street and there I saw several injured people. Some were saying their church has collapsed."
Many people in the area headed for higher ground, afraid that a tsunami would follow the quake but as it was centred inland their fears were unfounded.
The fact that offices and schools were closed for the Muslim festival of Eid may have saved lives.
The earthquake also was deeper below the surface than the 6.9-magnitude shock last year near Negros Island, also in the central Philippines, that killed nearly 100 people.