A large number of devotees gathered to celebrate the holy festival of Dussehra at the Ratangarh temple, in a forest outside the town of Datia, 390 km (240 miles) north of the state capital, Bhopal.
But a bridge leading to the temple collapsed, triggering the stampede.
"At the moment we can confirm the death toll at 64," a police spokesman said.
"More than 100 people are injured and being treated in nearby hospitals."
As the bridge collapsed, people began rushing towards the temple and got killed in the stampede, the spokesman said, adding that a few devotees drowned as they jumped into the Sindh river.
Some local media said the police used batons to control the crowd, prompting many people to panic. Inept handling has led to stampedes on previous occasions.
In February this year, a stampede killed at least 36 Hindu pilgrims, who were part of the world's largest religious festival which attracted some 30 million people.
Indian religious festivals often attract hundreds of thousands of people, sometimes even millions as in the case of the Kumbh Mela festival in Uttar Pradesh.
The Indian bureaucracy and security forces are ill-equipped and often under-staffed to manage such events. Pilgrims are sometimes in a hurry to finish their prayers and go home early.