Adel Daoud, 18, a US citizen from the Chicago suburb of Hillside, was provided with a fake bomb by undercover agents pretending to be terrorists.
Daoud is charged with trying to use a weapon of mass destruction and trying to destroy a building.
The FBI began monitoring Daoud after he posted material online about violent jihad and the killing of Americans.
In May, undercover agents contacted Daoud and he expressed interest in violent jihad. Prosecutors say he was offered chances to walk away from the plot.