The Scottish Government's Make Young People Your Business initiative and the Adopt an Intern scheme of the Scottish Chambers of Commerce were launched during the gathering of Ministers for the Scottish Cabinet in Campbeltown.
Liz Cameron, chief executive of the Scottish Chambers of Commerce, said a pilot of its scheme placed 100 graduates into jobs.
She said: "What the Scottish economy needs is dynamic, confident businesses. That's why we are delighted to be part of this unique collaboration between the Scottish Government and business."
First Minister Alex Salmond added: "We are determined to invest in the skills and talents of all our young people to help them build a more prosperous future for themselves, their families and for Scotland."
Joy Lewis, head of Adopt an Intern, said: "It is imperative those who work hard in their education are given opportunities to transfer this drive and enthusiasm to places of employment. This benefits the individuals, the businesses they join and the Scottish economy as a whole.
"This new partnership is passionately committed to tailoring and maximising opportunities for internships and permanent opportunities for businesses throughout Scotland."
Ms Cameron added: "The commitment of both business and government to roll out this programme will assist small businesses to grow whilst creating jobs for our talented graduates. This is a win-win for all. Small businesses are given tailored support to help them in what can be a complicated recruitment process, enabling them to access the talent of our young people.
"Our network of Chambers across Scotland is passionately committed to making young people our business. The potential of these graduates, coupled with entrepreneurial spirit of small businesses brings innovation and fresh thinking to Scotland's firms.
"This investment will place them at the core of our ambition to grow."