The First Minister – who expressed regret for having previously backed the disgraced former Royal Bank of Scotland chief executive – suggested Mr Goodwin had been singled out for special treatment. He said there was "some humbug" about the whole affair, which had provided a "convenient distraction" from some of the bigger policy issues, such as spending cuts.
Mr Salmond said: "What about all the other people who are keeping their honours who were also involved in the financial collapse? Are they going to have their honours withdrawn?
"What about the folk in the House of Lords who have been convicted of serious criminal offences? Why are they still in a legislature?"
Sir Jackie Stewart, the former motor racing champion who is a friend of Mr Goodwin, also pointed to convicted peers retaining their honours, noting: "If they are going to do this, are they going to go through the other people, some of whom have gone to jail and still have great honours?"
Labour backbencher John Mann raised the issue of consistency and also mentioned the "thorny question" of the Lords, "where they can still go to prison, come back in, keep their title and keep on voting".
Peers who have criminal convictions include the novelist Lord Archer, 71, sentenced in 2001 to four years in prison for perjury and perverting the course of justice, and the former Scottish minister Lord Watson, 62, sentenced in 2005 to 16 months' imprisonment for fire-raising.
At present, only an Act of Parliament can revoke a peerage, but No 10 made clear the Coalition planned to bring the House of Lords into line with the Commons, where members can be expelled if they are jailed for more than 12 months.
Tory backbencher Michael Fallon also raised the prospect of other bankers losing their titles. He said: "There is going to be a report now from the Financial Services Authority into the HBOS-Lloyds disintegration. So who knows what will follow from that?"
Sir Victor Blank is the former chairman of Lloyds Banking Group and Sir James Crosby the ex-chief of HBOS.
As the fallout from Mr Goodwin's public humiliation continued, suspicions mounted that David Cameron was the driving force behind the removal of the ex-banker's honour.
The Cabinet Office said it was the Forfeiture Committee which – unusually – "took it upon itself" to examine Mr Goodwin's knighthood. Normally it is a Government department that requests a review.
Asked repeatedly if the Prime Minister had put pressure on the committee to look at Mr Goodwin's knighthood, his spokesman replied: "It was their decision and their decision alone."
Asked if there had been any communication between Mr Cameron and the committee members, he added: "He has contacts with those senior civil servants but a decision to consider the case was taken by the Forfeiture Committee."
Sir Jackie was asked if he believed there had been no political influence in the removal of Mr Goodwin's knighthood. He replied: "No. I'm afraid somebody had to take a hit on it. There were a lot of things happening at that time which were badly handled by Government and they needed a scapegoat, and Fred Goodwin was a scapegoat."
On Tuesday night, the Cabinet Office announced the Queen had cancelled the ex-bank chief's knighthood, making clear the he had been the key figure in the near-collapse of RBS, which led to a record £45.5 billion bailout by the taxpayer.
Despite the Prime Minister and Chancellor George Osborne insisting the revoking of the ex-bank chief's knighthood was the right decision, others expressed concern at the process.
Alistair Darling, the former Labour chancellor, criticised the "tawdry" treatment meted out to Mr Goodwin, who received his honour in 2004 for "services to banking" following a recommendation by the then Labour Scottish Executive.
The Institute of Directors expressed concern over "anti-business hysteria", claiming the removal of Mr Goodwin's knighthood had politicised the honours system.
At Westminster, the RBS row, including the award – since waived – of a £ 1 million bonus to chief executive Stephen Hester, sparked fierce exchanges between Labour leader Ed Miliband and Mr Cameron.