Labour's justice spokesman Lewis Macdonald accused Kenny MacAskill of complacency after the Justice Secretary confirmed the level of monitoring imposed on nearly 400 sex offenders has been downgraded in the past three years.
The number placed in the highest risk category by police and social workers has fallen from 43 to 26, while the number in the intermediate category has been cut from 840 to 466.
Figures released by the Justice Secretary also showed the number of offenders breaching their monitoring conditions rose by 17% from 178 to 209.
The Scottish Government said the fall in those subjected to the most stringent monitoring levels "indicates that the agencies have developed a better understanding of the nature of risk and a more sophisticated approach to risk management".
Labour – who claimed 90% less cash was being spent funding intensive monitoring programmes for sex offenders compared with 2009 – said the public was at greater risk.
Mr Macdonald said: "Kenny MacAskill may argue that agencies are developing a better understanding of the nature of risk but the fact remains that over the same period we have seen an increase in breaches of sex offender notification requirements.
"I find it difficult to believe these two figures are a coincidence. Since 2009, Scotland has seen a number of high-profile cases across Scotland where the monitoring of sex offenders has gone terribly wrong, with devastating consequences for innocent individuals: Ryan Yates in Aberdeen, Thomas Shannon in Dundee and Kevin Rooney in Edinburgh."
He added: "It is not an easy job dealing with sex offenders, but Kenny MacAskill needs to get a grip of this situation and fast, as it looks like it might be spiralling out of control."
Sex offenders are monitored on their release from prison under multi-agency public protection arrangements, or MAPPAs, drawn up by police and social workers.
Programmes often see offenders tell police where they are.
A Scottish Government spokesman said the budget for community justice reached £112 million this year and was due to hit £7.5m in 2015. He said: "At a national level, we've also brought in a new disclosure scheme allowing parents to know if convicted offenders are living in their area, and are actively considering the use of possible satellite tracking of sex offenders."