The Budget for financial year 2013/14 – to be debated by MSPs on Tuesday – includes an extra £164.3 million for building projects announced by the Government last month.
The cash, released as a result of Chancellor George Osborne's autumn statement, will take total spending to £34.7 billion.
Mr Swinney unveiled a draft spending plan in September, billing it as a "Budget for jobs and growth".
But opposition politicians again claimed the Budget would do little to boost the economy, and called for extra funding for colleges in a bid to tackle high levels of youth unemployment.
The Government has found an additional £17m for colleges, but the sum only partly offsets deep cuts last year. The LibDems claimed the further education sector faces a £34.6m cut overall.
The STUC called on Mr Swinney to abandon flagship policies including the council tax freeze and "Small Business Bonus" rates discount scheme.
Opposition finance spokesmen met Mr Swinney for talks yesterday ahead of Tuesday's debate. However, the SNP's majority means he is under no pressure to accede to their requests.
The Budget is expected to be approved towards the end of next month.
Labour's finance spokesman Ken Macintosh said: "The Budget Bill confirms that although the SNP talk about designing a Budget for jobs and growth, most of their proposals will not make much difference to the Scottish economy.
"Cuts to housing and colleges still stand out as the wrong choices. These are decisions entirely of the Government's making and nothing to do with Tories at Westminster."
Willie Rennie, leader of the Scottish LibDems said: "We will continue to press the Scottish Government to extend free childcare provision to more two-year-olds and to reverse the planned £34.6m cut to college budgets."
Scots Tory finance spokesman Gavin Brown said: "This is not a Budget for growth despite the protests from John Swinney, who seems to be the only person to think his spending plans will help business."
Mr Swinney's Budget stuck closely to his three-year spending plan. New projects announced in September amounted to about £200m, less than 1% of the cash at his disposal.
A Government spokesman said: "The Budget Bill we have now published will accelerate economic recovery by creating jobs and supporting people into employment."
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