Nicola Sturgeon underlined her concerns at the launch of a Scottish Government analysis paper of the Westminster overhaul.
She said: "It is clear the UK Government's benefit reform unfairly impacts on some of the most vulnerable members of our society."
"This report shows there are adverse consequences for women, particularly mothers and their children, who could be worse off due to the welfare cuts."
The document highlights key reforms, including the child benefit freeze and reduction in the proportion of childcare costs.
The report concludes: "Women make up the majority of the public-sector workforce, making them more vulnerable to public-sector job cuts and pay freezes."