David Taylor, who has also served as chief executive of the Scottish Football Association and been a director of the business group Scottish Trade International, said Scotland faced a challenge from its "individual and collective lack of national self-confidence".
But he said a Yes vote in September's independence referendum could give people "a stronger sense of themselves and their country"
In an article in the Sunday Times he said: "Scotland has all the attributes to succeed on the international stage. But in many areas of business or sport, our identity remains blurred, which is never a marketing asset.
"It is time for this to change, for Scotland to have a new sense of purpose associated with Scots having a stronger sense of themselves and their country - for Scotland to become truly Scotland International by voting Yes."
His comments were welcomed by SNP MSP Bob Doris, the deputy convener of Holyrood's Health and Sport Committee.
Mr Doris said: "David Taylor's extensive experience in international sport and business give real weight to his views and his call for a Yes vote is a great result."
He added: "David Taylor has seen first-hand how Scotland can have a great influence internationally when we are able to represent ourselves on the sporting field. With a Yes vote we can achieve similar international success in all walks of life."
Blair Jenkins, the chief executive of the pro-independence Yes Scotland campaign, said: "We're delighted to welcome the endorsement from someone of David Taylor's stature.
"David has been in a rare position of working as part of a body where Scotland is seen as 'independent' on the world stage and has witnessed first-hand how a strong Scottish voice can have a big influence."