The SNP used its Holyrood majority to carry a motion calling for Scotland to leave the UK by 66 votes to 49.
Speaking after the set-piece debate, First Minister Alex Salmond said: "Scotland's Parliament has voted decisively in favour of all decisions affecting the people of Scotland being taken here rather than at Westminster.
"With exactly one year to go until the referendum, the overwhelming democratic and economic case for an independent Scotland is one that will gain more and more momentum in the weeks and months ahead."
The Holyrood victory cheered Nationalists on a day when a clutch of polls suggested they were trailing by a wide margin in the battle for referendum votes, with the people due to decide on September 18, 2014.
Ipsos MORI put support for a Yes vote on 31% compared with 59% of Scots backing No.
Meanwhile, Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg used his keynote speech at the Liberal Democrat conference in Glasgow to accuse Mr Salmond of offering a false choice between independence and the status quo.
The party's leader declared his "unambiguous" and "unequivocal" support for Scotland remaining in the UK, saying: "The Nationalists don't have a monopoly on passion in this debate. I love the way the UK is made up of different peoples, different traditions, different histories."
He emphasised how in uncertain times this was not the moment to start building walls but the moment to start knocking them down.
He said: "The decision in a year's time does not need to be between breaking the bond or keeping the status quo - that's a false choice. 'No' does not mean no change."
Highlighting his party's policy of fiscal autonomy for Scotland, he added: "A Scottish decision to remain within the UK family can and must give way to a new settlement for this nation."