The Radical Independence Conference in Glasgow discussed a post-Yes vote future including an end to the monarchy, more tax on the rich, greater workers' rights, and a more generous welfare state.
Green MSP Patrick Harvie said independence should deliver "radical change", not "a more Scottish version of the status quo".
Peter McColl, rector of Edinburgh University, said the UK could be approaching a revolutionary moment if austerity continued. Independence was a chance for the left to seize power.
Isobel Lindsay of Scottish CND said independence could remove nuclear weapons from the UK, and trigger worldwide disarmament.
The conference declared: "This is a Scotland which British politics has robbed from the Scottish people. We want it back."
Organiser Robin McAlpine said: "This has signalled a new dawn for the Scottish left and breathed life into the independence debate."