Ahead of a speech this afternoon in the Icelandic capital on the "geopolitics of an independent Scotland", Mr Robertson said: "Scottish independence will bring significant improvements to regional co-operation with neighbours such as Iceland, Denmark and Norway.
"Environmental challenges to the High North and Arctic will impact on us all most directly. We have a shared interest in taking these challenges as well as the opportunities seriously.
"Scotland is in a vital geo-strategic position with the Iceland Gap to our north, the Atlantic to our west and the North Sea to our East.
"The SNP has committed itself to security stability with our neighbouring northern allies who are all Nato members. With a commitment to conventional maritime priorities, we will be a reliable and dependable partner," he declared.
In his speech to the Centre for Arctic Studies in Reykjavik, the MP for Moray will say: "Sadly, the UK has an extremely poor recent record in taking the northern dimension seriously.
"The issue was completely ignored in the recent MoD strategic defence and security review and the UK is failing to take its Nato responsibilities seriously in the region. Not only has the UK withdrawn from northern air policing but has also let years pass without contributing naval vessels to the Nato northern maritime patrol group."
He will add: "Scotland is a northern maritime nation without any maritime patrol aircraft or serious ocean capable convention vessels.
"The UK Government is responsible for these capability gaps and policy shortcomings. An independent Scottish SNP government will rectify this as a top priority."
Mr Robertson's visit to Iceland comes a year after the decision by the SNP's annual conference to support the controversial proposal that an independent Scotla nd would continue within Nato as a non-nuclear conventional member state with a strong maritime focus on Northern European co-operation.
The Nationalist backbencher is due also to meet Icelandic government ministers and opposition spokesmen during his short visit.
A few weeks ago, Mr Robertson undertook a similar programme in Denmark, where he spoke at Copenhagen University on regional co-operation with an independent Scotland.