The survey on risk and constitutional attitudes found 60% believe both the Yes and No campaigns have not been entirely truthful about the consequences of independence.
Two-thirds of No voters (67%) believe both campaigns have been partial with the truth whereas less than half of all Yes voters (48%) feel the same.
Almost three-quarters of voters (70%) were also unsure of the campaigns' ability to accurately estimate the true consequences of independence.
The ICM survey of more than 2,000 Scottish residents found more than half of all voters (56%) - and 70% of No supporters - believe no one really knows whether an independent Scotland could join the EU.
More than half (51%) believe Scotland would arrange a defence pact with the UK, but the figure is lower for keeping the pound (38%).
The study concludes that levels of knowledge about some of the issues in the debate are "relatively low", after respondents were asked a series of true and false questions about the Yes Scotland campaign.
The proportion of people who did not know the answer was around 60% for almost all of the questions.
But the survey also found that almost 40% said the debate is increasing their engagement with politics.
Support for a Yes vote was 38%, while 51% backed No and 12% were undecided.
The findings will be presented at the Festival of Politics at Holyrood tomorrow by co-author Professor Ailsa Henderson, of the ESRC Scottish Centre on Constitutional Change in Edinburgh.
She said: "The Scottish electorate feels engaged with the referendum process, with over 92% saying they are very likely or fairly likely to vote.
"Similarly, 80% of respondents said that they were interested in the referendum campaign. People feel informed but there is limited confidence in the ability of either campaign to accurately reflect the consequences of the result and levels of actual knowledge are low."