Transport schemes and the construction of schools, hospitals and housing supported 40,000 jobs in the past 12 months, said Deputy First Minister Nicola Sturgeon.
And a progress report on the government's Infrastructure Investment Plan said investment can be expected to top £8 billion between 2014/15 and 2015/16.
Ms Sturgeon gave details as she visited the planned Hunter Health Centre in East Kilbride, South Lanarkshire, due to be completed next summer.
She said: "Infrastructure investment over 2013/14 is estimated to have supported 40,000 jobs across Scotland.
"That is good news for our economy and our construction industry, which we know benefits from the certainty and vision of the future the Infrastructure Investment Plan provides.
"Today's progress report shows significant progress has been made across all sectors over the past year.
"With the full powers of independence and prudent use of borrowing powers, we could bring forward investment more quickly."