Suggestions from Professor Arthur Midwinter include increasing the age of eligibility for cheaper bus fares and striking a painkiller from a list of free medicines.
He is helping Scottish Labour leader Johann Lamont to "reorder priorities" in an attempt to make the country fairer and more sustainable. The SNP accuses Ms Lamont of presiding over a "cuts commission" which it says will lead to the scrapping of popular universal benefits.
Professor Midwinter claimed Scottish Government policies have forced local authorities to divert £1 billion away from targeted anti-poverty initiatives.
He said that by failing to ring-fence some anti-poverty funds, the Scottish Government has allowed money to be swallowed up elsewhere as councils try to patch over cuts.
SNP MSP Linda Fabiani said: "The services delivered by the SNP Government are already effectively and efficiently managed. What Labour are talking about is removing free prescriptions from people with long-term conditions and taking away people's bus pass."
A Labour spokesman said: "It is time the SNP Government started being honest about the hard decisions we face."